Segunda corrida de touros - Manassas - História

Segunda corrida de touros - Manassas - História

A segunda batalha de Bull Run

Em agosto de 1863, a segunda Batalha de Bull Run foi travada no mesmo terreno da primeira. Por um breve período, os confederados levaram vantagem, mas, à medida que a União trazia mais forças para suportar, a batalha acabou em um impasse.


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Apesar da vitória de Lee na campanha de sete dias, ele estava muito preocupado com sua posição estratégica. O exército de McClellan ainda estava em Harrison's Landing. Eles estavam ensanguentados, mas ainda poderosos. Eles estavam a apenas um dia de marcha de Richmond. Ao mesmo tempo, Burnside tinha uma força de 15.000 soldados a bordo de navios que podiam atacar a qualquer momento. Enquanto isso, havia uma grande força da União liderada por Hooker em Fredericksburg. O que se tornou mais alarmante, porém, foi a força liderada pelo Papa, que ocupou Culpeper em 16 de julho. Se Pope continuasse seu avanço, chegaria a Gordonsville e cortaria os suprimentos de Richmond no vale de Shenandoah.

Lee enviou a divisão de Jackson para Gordonsville para afastar Pope. Jackson chegou primeiro. Depois que Lee enviou a divisão de A.P. Hill, Jackson recebeu ordens de avançar sobre as forças do papa, perto de Cedar Mount. A batalha inicialmente favoreceu as forças de Pope, que atacaram no flanco de Jackson. No entanto, as tropas do Papa foram repelidas no último momento e os confederados partiram para a ofensiva. A batalha que ocorreu em 9 de agosto terminou em um impasse. A batalha não foi reiniciada no dia 10. No dia 11, quando as forças da União sugeriram uma trégua, para que os mortos e feridos pudessem ser atendidos, Jackson concordou prontamente. Neste ponto, as forças de Pope estavam sendo constantemente reforçadas. Assim, Jackson decidiu se retirar. Embora Jackson tenha sido forçado a recuar após a batalha de Cedar Mountain, ele frustrou com sucesso os avanços posteriores de Pope.

Nesse ponto, a vantagem estratégica mudou para Lee. O general Halleck se tornou o novo comandante de todas as forças dos EUA. Quando McClellan deixou claro que não se envolveria em nenhuma ação ofensiva sem reforços substanciais, Halleck ordenou que McClellan se retirasse do rio James - com a concordância de Lincoln. Assim, Lee estava livre para remover suas tropas dos arredores de Richmond e concentrar suas forças contra Pope. No entanto, Lee teve uma pequena janela de oportunidade. A janela de Lee para o ataque seria aberta apenas enquanto o exército de McClellan estivesse em trânsito. As forças de Lee juntaram-se a Jackson contra Pope. O plano de Lee era atacar Pope, enquanto suas forças estavam localizadas entre os rios Rapidan e Rappahannock. Em 19 de agosto, Pope puxou suas forças para trás do Rappahannock, antes que Lee pudesse atacar. Todas as tentativas de Lee de cruzar o rio foram rejeitadas. O único sucesso de Lee foi enviar a cavalaria, comandada por Jeb Stuart, para Warrenton Junction em um ataque atrás das linhas da União, onde ele apreendeu a bagagem pessoal de Pope.

Após o ataque bem-sucedido de Stuart, Lee decidiu prosseguir com um ataque muito maior. Em 25 de agosto, Lee enviou a divisão de Jackson em um grande movimento de flanco para o oeste de Pope e através da passagem de passagem completa. O tempo estava se esgotando, pois elementos do Exército do Potomac chegavam todos os dias. Na noite de 26 de agosto, Stonewall Jackson apareceu na retaguarda de Pope. Jackson atingiu a linha de abastecimento de Pope na ferrovia Orange & Alexandria, na Estação de Bristol, e a enorme estação de abastecimento em Manassas Junction. Em vez de se aposentar, Jackson, com seus 24.000 homens, decidiu se posicionar perto de Manassas. Jackson enviou seus homens a alguns quilômetros de distância, para um cume com vista para o Warrenton Pike.

Pope perdeu Jackson de vista e primeiro ordenou que suas tropas convergissem para Manassas e, depois, para Centerville. No entanto, Jackson não foi encontrado. Na tarde do dia 28, Jackson resolveu resolver o problema por conta própria e fez com que suas tropas abrissem fogo contra uma divisão federal que passava, liderada pelo general Gibbons. Os soldados que passavam ficaram surpresos, mas não entraram em pânico. Cada lado se manteve firme e atirou até ficar muito escuro para ver qualquer coisa onde atirar. Esta curta batalha foi apenas um prelúdio para a batalha do dia seguinte que ficou conhecida como “A Batalha de Groveton”. Como resultado da batalha de Groveton, 2.300 homens adicionais foram vítimas.

No dia seguinte à Batalha de Groveton, Pope ordenou um ataque contra as linhas de Jackson. Embora Pope tivesse uma vantagem numérica esmagadora, ele foi incapaz de implantar todas as suas forças contra as forças de Jackson, já que as tropas de Jackson estavam entrincheiradas em excelentes posições defensivas. As forças de Jackson repeliram com sucesso os vários ataques federais. Naquela noite, Pope se convenceu de que Jackson e os confederados estavam se retirando. Assim, ele ordenou uma perseguição pela manhã. Pope estava novamente enganado. Não apenas Jackson não foi derrotado, ele estava sendo reforçado.

Pela manhã, as tropas da União que atacavam Jackson foram recebidas com fogo fulminante. Eles quase conseguiram passar, o que forçou Jackson a pedir ajuda. A ajuda veio na forma de um ataque dos soldados do General Longstreet, que junto com o resto do exército de Lee estavam agora presentes ao sul das posições de Jackson. Apesar do ataque massivo, as linhas da União não se romperam. Embora as linhas da União fossem lentamente recuadas.

Por um breve momento, as tropas da União fizeram uma resistência na Casa Henry, ao ver a posição de Jackson na primeira batalha de Bull Run. Lentamente, as forças da União recuaram, cruzando a ponte de pedra sobre Bull Run. Quando o último Bluecoat cruzou, eles destruíram a ponte. Forças sindicais reformadas em Centerville. No dia seguinte, as tropas cansadas de Jackson tentaram flanquear Pope. Nesta breve batalha, conhecida como Batalha de Chantilly- (algumas milhas ao norte de Centerville), Jackson foi repelido, mas à custa da vida de dois generais da União; Stevens e Phil Kearny. Isso pôs fim à batalha, as forças da União agora eram muito fortes para os confederados atacarem.


Onde o Southern Victories foi testado no Northern Resolve

Em 21 de julho de 1861, dois exércitos se enfrentaram pela primeira vez nos campos com vista para Bull Run. A luta intensa varreu qualquer noção de uma guerra rápida. Em agosto de 1862, os exércitos da União e dos Confederados convergiram pela segunda vez nas planícies de Manassas. Os confederados conquistaram uma vitória sólida, levando-os ao auge de seu poder.

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Primeira Batalha de Manassas

Saiba mais sobre a Primeira Batalha de Manassas (Bull Run) - 21 de julho de 1861.

Segunda Batalha de Manassas

Saiba mais sobre a vitória dos Confederados na Segunda Batalha de Manassas (Bull Run) - 28 a 30 de agosto de 1862.


Monumento da segunda corrida de touros

Como seu monumento companheiro em Henry Hill, este obelisco foi construído pelos soldados da União no final da Guerra Civil. Foi dedicado durante uma elaborada cerimônia realizada em 10 de junho de 1865.

Tópicos Este monumento histórico está listado nesta lista de tópicos: Guerra, Civil dos EUA. Um mês histórico significativo para esta entrada é junho de 1862.

Localização. Este marcador foi substituído por outro marcador próximo. 38 e 49.253 & # 8242 N, 77 & deg 33.241 & # 8242 W. Marker está perto de Manassas, Virginia, no Condado de Prince William. O marcador pode ser alcançado a partir de Featherbed Lane (continuação da Groveton Road) meia milha ao norte da Lee Highway (antiga Warrenton Turnpike) (EUA 29). Marker está na trilha Deep Cut loop, uma agradável caminhada de 0,5 km a oeste do estacionamento Deep Cut Battlefield no Manassas National Battlefield Park. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: Manassas VA 20109, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 10 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste local. Monumento Groveton (aqui, próximo a este marcador) 13ª Infantaria de Nova York (a poucos passos deste marcador) 83ª Infantaria da Pensilvânia (a uma distância de grito deste marcador) The Rock Fight (a uma distância de grito deste marcador) um marcador diferente também denominado The Rock Fight (a uma curta distância deste marcador) 24ª Infantaria de Nova York (cerca de 300 pés de distância, medido

em uma linha direta) Quarta Brigada (cerca de 300 pés de distância) Segunda Brigada (cerca de 400 pés de distância) 15ª Infantaria do Alabama (cerca de 700 pés de distância) The Wisconsin Company (aproximadamente 0,2 milhas de distância). Toque para obter uma lista e um mapa de todos os marcadores em Manassas.

Mais sobre este monumento. Este marcador foi substituído por um novo chamado Monumento Groveton (veja os marcadores próximos).

Quanto ao Monumento da Segunda Corrida de Touros. Este monumento também é conhecido como Monumento Groveton. Foi dedicado no mesmo dia que seu irmão gêmeo, o Henry Hill Monument aprox. 1,7 milhas a sudoeste.

A inscrição do monumento diz, & # 8220Em memória dos patriotas que caíram em Groveton. 28, 29 e 30 de agosto de 1862. & # 8221

Groveton era uma pequena vila na rodovia Warrenton. Não existe mais.

Veja também . . . Os monumentos no campo de batalha de Bull Run. Artigo em The Illustrated London News 15 de julho de 1865. (Enviado em 11 de março de 2007.)


Segunda Corrida de Touro - Manassas - História


Reconstituição da Batalha de Bull Run, União acima, Confederado abaixo. Acima é cortesia do National Park Service.


Páginas associadas

Estatísticas do Visitante Manassas NBP

510.427 visitantes
# 122 Unidade de Parque Nacional Mais Visitada

Fonte: NPS 2019, classificação entre 378 parques nacionais classificados.

Tamanho do parque

4.413 acres (Federal) 5.073 acres (Total)

Taxa de parque

Clima

Verão - Quente e úmido. Inverno - De frio a frio dependendo do dia. Neve rara.


Acima: Ruínas da Ponte de Pedra após a 1ª Batalha de Bull Run. Foto de Alexander Gardner. Fonte: Arquivos dos EUA. Abaixo: Foto da Ponte de Pedra hoje. Foto à direita: Litografia da Segunda Batalha de Bull Run, mostrando o Exército da Virgínia e as tropas Confederadas sob o comando do General Robert E. Lee. Currier e Ives, 1862. Fonte: LOC.

Manassas National Battlefield

Manassas. Corrida de touros. Local da primeira grande batalha da Guerra Civil e de uma segunda batalha pouco mais de um ano depois. Manassas Junction, a apenas 32 quilômetros a oeste de Washington, D.C., sediaria duas lutas destinadas a resolver a divisão no governo federal que começou com uma secessão na Carolina do Sul e o bombardeio de Fort Sumter. Foi uma luta que muitos pensaram que acabaria rapidamente, tanto que quando se soube que uma batalha estava se formando ao longo da margem do riacho conhecido como Bull Run, piqueniques foram embalados e gorros apertados entre a classe política e a aristocracia do cidade. Ao final de uma hora entre a saraivada de balas, tiros de canhão e os gritos dos feridos e moribundos, estava bastante claro que a insensibilidade e a leviandade que os cidadãos de Washington City pensavam sobre o conflito desapareceriam para sempre. Quatro anos depois e mais de 700.000 cidadãos e soldados mortos fariam o primeiro dia da primeira batalha de Bull Run, em Manassas, Virginia, longe de ser uma solução rápida e fácil. E lembre-se do contexto que essas vítimas causaram nos campos deste subúrbio do Distrito de Columbia a Vicksburg e Atlanta, a Gettysburg e Shiloh. Eles vieram em uma nação não de trezentos milhões de residentes, mas uma de 31 milhões de pessoas no censo de 1860 em todos os estados e territórios.

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Manassas então

A Guerra Civil começaria em Fort Sumter, mas não seria cimentada até que a primeira Batalha de Bull Run terminasse. Pense apenas nos números que virão, nas tragédias que afetariam quase todas as famílias. Contexto para hoje, imagine a morte de quase seis milhões de americanos. Isso é o que a Guerra Civil significou após a batalha. Era isso que estava por vir. E se não tinha sido realizado em 21 de julho de 1861 naquelas viagens de surrey de Washington ao primeiro grande campo de batalha em 1861, estava a caminho de casa e muitas vezes mais nos quatro anos seguintes. Não esqueçamos o que Bull Run, ou Guerra Civil, significava então ou hoje, e o efeito que tem na liberdade que temos hoje.

Abraham Lincoln havia feito um chamado para as tropas em 15 de abril, três dias após o ataque ao Fort Sumter, no porto de Charleston. Nos meses seguintes, fora de uma pequena escaramuça ou duas, o tempo foi gasto na preparação. Os comandantes da União treinaram suas tropas, aquelas maravilhas de três meses, enquanto os generais do sul, agora incluindo alguns dos melhores generais do Exército, como Robert E. Lee e Stonewall Jackson, fizeram o mesmo.

Quando os primeiros tiros foram disparados em Fort Sumter, o Exército Federal era composto por 16.000 soldados. Na época da primeira Batalha de Bull Run, a União tinha 30.000 homens sob o comando do general Irvin McDowell perto de Washington e 14.000 sob o comando do general Robert Patterson no vale do rio Shenandoah. Os confederados tinham 20.000 sob o general Beauregard entre Richmond e Washington com 11.000 soldados adicionais sob o general Joseph E. Johnston no Shenandoah.

O general McDowell estava confiante de que seu exército poderia derrotar as tropas de Beauregard. Isso, no entanto, foi baseado na capacidade de Patterson de manter as tropas restantes do Exército Confederado no Shenadoah. Mas isso não aconteceu e, na época de 21 de julho, o general Johnston trouxe suas tropas para a corrida de touros. A luta começaria com um ataque do Norte e terminaria com um contra-ataque confederado. Quando as forças da União se rompessem, eles recuariam para Washington derrotados, competindo na fúria da retirada com todos os espectadores que tinham vindo ao interior da Virgínia para aqueles piqueniques. As baixas na primeira Batalha de Bull Run seriam pequenas em comparação com as de batalhas posteriores, com mais de 3.500 mortos, feridos e desaparecidos. Seria pequeno em comparação com a segunda Batalha de Bull Run realizada durante os últimos dias de agosto de 1862. Mas o que pressagiava, e prenunciava, estava longe de ser pequeno. Isso devastaria uma nação e levaria anos para uni-la novamente e curar todas as feridas.

1ª Batalha de Bull Run - Com o General Irvin McDowell nomeado por Lincoln para chefiar as tropas da União do Exército do Nordeste da Virgínia, e recebendo ordens para obter uma vitória rápida. Os confederados estavam perto demais da cidade, com uma linha estacionada a apenas vinte e cinco milhas de distância. McDowell iria atacá-los com duas colunas enquanto Patterson impedia reforços do Shenandoah. McDowell começou seu movimento no início de 21 de julho de 1861 em direção a Sudley Springs e a Stone Bridge. A batalha teve sucesso inicial da União, mas por meio do esforço de Stonewall Jackson durante a tarde, a maré da 1ª Batalha de Manassas começou a virar. Quando os canhões da União foram capturados, os confederados ganharam vantagem e as últimas tropas da União se retiraram de Henry House Hill às 4 horas. Enquanto isso, reforços confederados do Shenandoah e do comando de Johnston entraram em ação, derrotando as forças da União em Chinn Ridge. A retirada da União entrou em pânico enquanto eles cruzavam a Bull Run, juntando-se aos civis em fuga que tinham vindo para testemunhar a batalha.

Entre as duas batalhas, o medo tomou conta dos cidadãos de Washington, pois temiam uma campanha contra a cidade, mas as forças confederadas não seguiram essa estratégia. O general McDowell recebeu crédito pela derrota e foi substituído pelo general George B. McClellan após a batalha.

No ano seguinte, as forças federais voltariam para a área.

2ª Batalha de Bull Run - Lutada de 28 a 30 de agosto de 1862, a Segunda Batalha de Manassas foi muito maior do que sua antecessora. Foi precipitado pela captura do depósito de suprimentos da União por Stonewall Jackson. No dia 28 do mês, vários ataques foram lançados por comandantes confederados sob o comando geral do General Robert E. Lee Jackson na fazenda de Brawner (impasse) e Longstreet em Thoroughfare Gap (sucesso). O general Pope, agora comandando o Exército da União após o disparo de McClellan devido ao fracasso da Campanha da Península, atacou a posição de Jackson no dia seguinte, mas não ganhou terreno. Quando Longstreet chegou à direita de Jackson, sem o conhecimento de Pope, o ataque do dia seguinte pelas forças da União falhou, causando uma retirada que remontava à da 1ª Batalha de Bull Run, embora a ação na retaguarda do Exército da União tenha restaurado a ordem antes do mesmo nível de desordem de 1861.

Foto acima: Stone House ao longo da Lee Highway no Manassas National Battlefield. Abaixo: The Henry House na colina Henry House com o moderno centro de visitantes ao fundo.


Segunda corrida de touros - Manassas - História

A Segunda Batalha de Bull Run foi travada entre 28 e 30 de agosto de 1862 e foi a segunda vez que as forças da União e dos Confederados se encontraram em Bull Run, perto de Manassas, no Condado de Prince William, Virgínia. A primeira batalha havia ocorrido em julho do ano anterior e resultou em uma derrota para o Exército Federal.

A segunda batalha colocou as tropas federais no Exército da Virgínia, comandado pelo Major General John Pope, contra o Exército Confederado da Virgínia do Norte, liderado pelo General Robert E. Lee.

Fundo

O presidente, Abraham Lincoln, encarregou o general Pope do Exército da Virgínia, uma força recém-criada. Lincoln estava preocupado com o fracasso da campanha do Exército da Península de Potomac e # 8217s sob o comando do General George B. McClellan e queria um comandante que tivesse uma abordagem mais agressiva.

As instruções do papa eram para defender Washington e o Vale do Shenandoah contra a possibilidade de ataques dos confederados. Ele também deveria mover suas tropas para Gordonsville em uma tentativa de desviar a atenção dos confederados do exército de McClellan & # 8217, então localizado na Península da Virgínia.

Após vários combates bem-sucedidos contra as tropas de McClellan & # 8217s, o general Lee estava confiante o suficiente para tirar parte de seu exército das funções defensivas ao redor da capital confederada em Richmond. Ele enviou Stonewall Jackson a Gordonsville para deter o avanço do Pope & # 8217s e, mais tarde, enviou mais 12.000 homens sob o comando do Major General A.P. Hill para apoiar Jackson.

Os exércitos de Pope & # 8217s e McClellan & # 8217s foram amplamente separados, e Lee decidiu tentar destruir o exército de Pope & # 8217s e então enfrentar McClellan & # 8217s, que Lee pensava ser o mais fraco dos dois.

O general em chefe do exército da União, Henry W. Halleck, enviou ordens a McClellan em 3 de agosto, instruindo-o a se aliar aos homens do Papa Pope na aproximação a Gordonsville. A carreira militar de McClellan & # 8217 é cheia de episódios de hesitação e, mais uma vez, ele se atrasou e só começou a se mover em 14 de agosto, onze dias após receber suas ordens.

Entre 22 e 25 de agosto, as forças de Pope & # 8217s e Lee & # 8217s se envolveram em uma série de pequenos encontros ao longo do rio Rappahannock. Durante este período, os homens de McClellan & # 8217s começaram a chegar e reforçar as forças do Papa & # 8217s.

Reconhecendo que estava em desvantagem numérica, Lee decidiu tentar cortar as linhas de suprimento da Pope & # 8217s pegando a ferrovia Orange e Alexandria. Ele despachou metade de suas forças em uma manobra de flanco e, em 26 de agosto, Stonewall Jackson assumiu o controle da ferrovia na estação de Briscoe, seguida por Manassas Junction e o principal depósito federal de suprimentos ali. Ele então mudou-se para assumir uma posição defensiva em Stony Ridge.

Pope foi forçado a se retirar de Rappahannock, e o exército de Lee & # 8217 assumiu posições defensivas em torno de Bull Run.

A batalha

A batalha começou em 28 de agosto. Os confederados estabeleceram posições para impedir que o exército da União se movesse ao longo da Warrenton Turnpike. Unidades do exército da União moveram-se para o pedágio em uma tentativa de consolidar forças com Pope, cuja força principal estava agora localizada em Centerville, e estes foram atacados por unidades Jackson & # 8217s.

Enquanto isso, as forças confederadas sob o comando do Major General James Longstreet derrotaram as forças federais na Batalha de Thoroughfare Gap. Esta vitória permitiu que os homens de Longstreet & # 8217s se juntassem aos Jackson & # 8217s.

Em 29 de agosto, Pope lançou uma ofensiva contra as tropas de Jackson & # 8217s, que agora estavam em posições defensivas ao longo de uma ferrovia incompleta. Pope acreditava que algumas de suas forças estavam em posição de evitar que Jackson recuasse para as montanhas Bull Run. Jackson estava confiante de que sua posição defensiva era sólida e ele poderia aguentar até a chegada das tropas de Longstreet & # 8217s. Os confederados seguraram com sucesso a ofensiva federal e, no final do dia, os homens de Longstreeet & # 8217s chegaram de Thoroughfare Gap.

No início da manhã de 30 de agosto, a seção final das unidades do Longstreet & # 8217s chegou e assumiu posição na escuridão em Groveton. Quando o sol nasceu, essas unidades perceberam que estavam completamente isoladas e muito próximas das forças da União. Seu comandante, Richard H. Anderson, ordenou imediatamente uma retirada.

Erro do Papa e # 8217s

Pope estava convencido de que todo o exército confederado estava agora em retirada e planejava persegui-los. Apesar da informação de que os confederados ainda estavam em posição, o Papa enviou seus soldados para renovar os ataques aos confederados. Ele ignorou o conselho de vários de seus funcionários para proceder com cuidado.

Pope ordenou que o Major General Fitz John Porter & # 8217s atacassem ao longo da estrada. Ao mesmo tempo, outras unidades deveriam avançar ao longo do flanco direito da União. Pope ordenou esses movimentos de tropas constantemente, acreditando que estaria perseguindo as forças confederadas em retirada.

Os confederados, ao invés de recuar, moveram a artilharia pesada para um terreno alto com vista para a Fazenda Brawner em antecipação a um ataque da União. Em segundo lugar, os homens de Porter & # 8217s não estavam na melhor posição para seguir as ordens do Papa & # 8217s, e houve um atraso significativo antes que estivessem prontos para cumprir a instrução. As tropas federais foram repelidas por um pesado bombardeio de artilharia confederada e o ataque falhou.

Contra ataque

Longstreet então lançou um contra-ataque, usando 25.000 homens no ataque. O objetivo era tomar Henry House Hill, já que este local havia se mostrado decisivo na Primeira Batalha de Bull Run. Ao longo do dia, combates ferozes ocorreram enquanto terreno era conquistado e perdido.

Pope também reconheceu a importância estratégica de Henry House Hill e iniciou uma retirada para reforçar seus defensores ali. Essas tropas sofreram intensa pressão das tropas confederadas, que conseguiram derrotar várias unidades de artilharia e infantaria.

Quando escureceu, Pope conseguiu retirar-se para Henry House Hill e estabelecer uma linha defensiva sólida. A ação foi tão intensa que as forças confederadas ficaram com pouca munição e exaustos da ação. Isso deu a Pope a oportunidade de iniciar uma retirada ordenada para Centerville sob o manto da escuridão.

Assim como na Primeira Batalha de Bull Run, o exército da União foi forçado a recuar. No entanto, desta vez a retirada foi ordeira e disciplinada, e o exército não sofreu a devastadora humilhação e perdas sofridas na retirada de julho do ano anterior.

Depois da batalha

A Segunda Batalha de Bull Run resultou em pesadas baixas de ambos os lados. O exército da União perdeu cerca de 10.000 homens no total, enquanto os confederados perderam cerca de 8.300. Em 12 de setembro, Pope foi destituído de seu comando.


Artigos apresentando a Segunda Batalha de Bull Run das revistas History Net

Das dezenas de regimentos Zouave com equipamentos coloridos que serviram na Guerra Civil & # 8212 unidades cujos uniformes foram inspirados nas exóticas regalia das famosas tropas coloniais francesas & # 8212, nenhum superou a reputação da 5ª Infantaria Voluntária de Nova York em proficiência tática, disciplina militar e postura firme sob fogo. Organizada em abril de 1861 pelo rico comerciante de madeira serrada de Manhattan Abram Dury & eacutee, a unidade atraiu muitos jovens profissionais para suas fileiras & # 8212 estudantes, graduados universitários, advogados e empresários. & # 8216Eu espero que cada homem cumpra seu dever e espero cumprir o meu, & # 8217 o coronel Dury & eacutee disse às suas tropas reunidas enquanto se preparavam para embarcar para a Virgínia. & # 8216Tenho a intenção de fazer deste regimento uma glória para o estado. & # 8217

Ensanguentado no confronto em Big Bethel em junho de 1861, Dury & eacutee & # 8217s Zouaves posteriormente passou oito meses na guarnição em Baltimore, Maryland, onde continuaram a aprimorar suas habilidades táticas sob um novo comandante, o coronel Gouverneur Kemble Warren. O soldado William McIlvaine caracterizou Warren como & # 8216muito eficiente & # 8217, mas achou sua personalidade & # 8216 fria, precisa e científica. & # 8217

No último dia de março de 1862, os Zouaves desembarcaram na Península da Virgínia, onde se juntaram ao major-general George B. McClellan & # 8217s Exército do Potomac na campanha destinada a capturar Richmond. O coronel Warren logo recebeu o comando de uma brigada em Brig. Gen. George Sykes & # 8217 divisão do V Corpo. Foi uma honra distinta para os Dury & eacutee Zouaves e seus camaradas do 10º New York & # 8216National Zouaves & # 8217, pois as outras unidades no comando de Sykes & # 8217 eram tropas do Exército Regular dos EUA. O soldado de infantaria regular Augustus Meyers admitiu que a disciplina de Zouaves & # 8217 & # 8216, eficiência e treinamento não eram igualados por nenhum outro regimento voluntário no Exército do Potomac & # 8217, enquanto o major de artilharia Charles Wainwright pensava que a 5ª Nova York era & # 8216equivalente em todos respeito aos regulares e melhor perfurado. & # 8217

No feroz confronto em Gaines & # 8217 Mill em 27 de junho de 1862, os homens do 5º provaram que eram mais do que uma ornamentação colorida de desfile, lançando ataques repetidos com baionetas fixas contra os confederados que se aproximavam e perdendo 162 dos 450 homens envolvidos. & # 8216Nosso regimento sustentou bem sua reputação & # 8217 o soldado Richard Ackerman escreveu a seu pai. & # 8216Os regulares pensam tudo a respeito e quase divinizam o coronel Warren. & # 8217 Um cirurgião federal capturado e libertado informou a Warren sobre a admiração do inimigo pelos nova-iorquinos coloridos, relatando & # 8216De seus generais em diante, através de todos notas eles concluíram que nunca tinham visto os superiores das & # 8216 pernas vermelhas & # 8217 para coragem e frieza inabaláveis. & # 8217

Com suas fileiras reduzidas por batalhas e doenças a ponto de algumas empresas serem lideradas por sargentos, e seus uniformes manchados por meses de campanhas infrutíferas, o 5º New York partiu da base de McClellan & # 8217s em Harrison & # 8217s Landing em 14 de agosto. Junto com o resto do V Corpo de exército, eles foram destinados ao serviço com as forças do major-general John Pope & # 8217s no norte da Virgínia. Enquanto se preparavam para embarcar em um navio para o norte em Newport News, juntaram-se a eles cerca de 100 novos recrutas, cujos rostos pálidos, mochilas cheias e roupas zuavas imaculadas contrastavam com os dos veteranos bronzeados e esfarrapados. O coronel Warren ainda exercia o comando da brigada, e o capitão Cleveland Winslow, o filho mais velho do capelão patriarcal da unidade, Dr. Gordon Winslow, estava no comando do regimento. Um disciplinador severo com uma insistência quase fanática na formalidade militar, o elegante capitão estava longe de ser popular entre os soldados rasos. & # 8216Ele tem um grande choque de auto-estima que ocupa todo o seu cérebro & # 8217, lamentou o soldado Alfred Davenport. & # 8216Ele tem chamadas de bateria e clarim para tudo, exceto para as chamadas da natureza. & # 8217

Em 29 de agosto, os zouaves chegaram a Manassas Junction. O major Rufus Dawes do 6º Wisconsin, um regimento devastado na luta em Brawner & # 8217s Farm em 28 de agosto, lembrou a chegada do major-general Fitz John Porter & # 8217s V Corps e como os veteranos endurecidos zombaram daqueles que consideravam & # 8217s algo bastante inferior ao Exército do Potomac. & # 8217 Dawes ouviu um homem responder a uma observação depreciativa de Zouave & # 8217s: & # 8216Espere até chegar onde estivemos. Você & # 8217 terá a folga tirada de suas pantalonas e o inchaço de suas cabeças. & # 8217 A declaração provou ser tragicamente profética.

Como o resto do corpo de Fitz Porter & # 8217s, as tropas de Warren & # 8217s não participaram da luta em 29 de agosto. Na manhã de 30 de agosto, entretanto, a brigada se aproximou do local da batalha. Mas enquanto elementos do V Corpo de exército se preparavam para renovar o ataque ao General Thomas J. & # 8216Stonewall & # 8217 Jackson & # 8217s forças & # 8212 postadas ao longo do gradiente de uma ferrovia inacabada & # 8212 Warren & # 8217s 1.100 homens permaneceram em reserva na Warrenton Turnpike.

Alguns zuavos aproveitaram a calmaria para ferver o café enquanto outros conversavam ou brincavam com as colunas de soldados da União que passavam. Depois de lavar o rosto em um pequeno regato, o capitão da Companhia F George Hager exibiu orgulhosamente sua nova jaqueta de oficial trançada de ouro & # 8217 para um grupo de homens alistados. & # 8216Meninos, & # 8217 o capitão riu, & # 8216 ganhou & # 8217t eu faço um cadáver de boa aparência? & # 8217 A bravata do oficial & # 8217s mascarou um senso terrivelmente realista dos perigos à frente. & # 8216Se eu morrer & # 8217é por uma causa nobre, & # 8217 Hager escreveu para sua família & # 8216e um também, que se eu tivesse ficado inativo em casa, deveria corar ao dizer que não participei. & # 8217

No início da tarde, o 1º Ten Charles E. Hazlett e a Bateria D # 8217s, 5ª Artilharia dos Estados Unidos, vieram estrondosamente pela estrada ao lado das tropas de Warren e # 8217s. Warren chamou a atenção de seus homens, e o capitão Winslow destacou um esquadrão da Companhia E para derrubar uma seção da cerca ferroviária para que os canhões Hazlett & # 8217s Parrott pudessem se posicionar no topo da colina ao sul do pique. Naquele momento, vários projéteis inimigos explodiram nas proximidades, estilhaçando os postes da cerca. & # 8216Tudo bem! & # 8217 Zouave Cabo John Carroll riu nervosamente. & # 8216Se os Johnnies quiserem derrubar a cerca, & # 8217 estou disposto a ficar de lado! & # 8217

Aproximadamente às 14h00, o Maj. General John F. Reynolds & # 8217 divisão abandonou sua posição na Hazlett & # 8217s à esquerda, movendo-se para o leste para Chinn Ridge. Uma hora depois, Reynolds recebeu ordens para o norte, através do Warrenton Pike, para se juntar ao ataque à força de Jackson & # 8217, que ainda estava mantendo sua posição ao longo da ferrovia inacabada. Não querendo acreditar nos avisos de uma presença confederada em frente à sua esquerda, John Pope estava obcecado pela destruição de Jackson e # 8217, reunindo suas forças para atingir esse objetivo.

A partida da divisão Reynolds & # 8217 preocupou Hazlett, que havia recebido ordens do comandante Porter para ir à colina ao sul do pique. O tenente cavalgou para a esquerda e viu que todo o seu apoio tinha sumido, & # 8216 nem mesmo deixando os piquetes. & # 8217 Percebendo a vulnerabilidade de sua posição, Hazlett perguntou ao coronel Warren & # 8216 se ele não poderia me dar algum apoio enquanto eu mandava de volta palavra ao General Porter sobre a situação. & # 8217

Warren chamou a atenção de sua brigada, ordenando aos homens que jogassem fora o café. A maioria o fez, embora alguns ainda carregassem xícaras de lata fumegantes enquanto manobravam em linha de frente para um bosque de 75 acres à esquerda dos canhões Hazlett & # 8217s. Atrás deles, no sopé de uma encosta aberta, corria o Young & # 8217s Branch, um afluente do Bull Run. No lado oposto do riacho lamacento erguia-se a face oeste de Chinn Ridge, pontilhada por pequenos cedros e algumas moitas de pinheiros. Tudo parecia quieto.

Incerto se alguma força confederada estava além da floresta à sua frente, o coronel Warren cavalgou para a esquerda da brigada e ordenou que o coronel John E. Bendix do 10º New York enviasse seis companhias como escaramuças. Bendix atribuiu o destacamento a seu tenente-coronel, John W. Marshall. Largely clad in blue regulation issue as they awaited the arrival of new Zouave attire, the National Zouaves moved west through the trees to the fields that lay beyond. The remaining four companies of the 10th New York stayed in reserve on the left front of the 5th.

Hazlett’s guns fired a few shells, and north of the pike the roar of battle grew in intensity. But except for an occasional shot from the skirmish line, for the better part of two hours it remained quiet in Warren’s sector. Muskets were stacked, and the troops rested in place, some taking the opportunity for a catnap. More than an hour passed.

The skirmishers of the 10th New York were engaged in a desultory firefight with their Confederate counterparts when, just after 4 p.m., the Rebel skirmish line suddenly rose and started forward. The significance of their movement became immediately and shockingly apparent. Rank after rank of Southern troops emerged from the cover of a wood line, and came sweeping across the fields like a vast, gray wave, flecked with glinting steel and crowned with blood-red battle flags. It was Maj. Gen. James Longstreet’s corps, nearly 30,000 strong, and the first obstacle in their way was Captain Cleveland Winslow’s little regiment.

A soldier of the 18th Georgia noted that the Confederates ‘rushed forward at a charge from the word go, all the time keeping up an unearthly yell….’ When they encountered the 10th New York skirmishers, the latter ‘fired one volley and fled closely pursued.’

The command ‘Attention, battalion!’ brought the 5th New Yorkers to their feet, even as the first shots echoed from the woods in front. As the men seized their muskets and hastily loaded, the scattered rounds were followed by what Private Andrew Coats called ‘a terrific volley of musketry, the bullets from which came hurtling through the air with a sound like that which would be made by an immense flock of partridges.’ The first man hit was Private Patrick Brady of Company G, a 35-year-old piano maker who was regarded as a good soldier despite his fondness for alcohol. Brady ‘fell without saying a word,’ Alfred Davenport recalled. ‘He was dragged a few paces to the rear, where he undid his body belt himself. He died there without a complaint.’

‘There we stood like statues,’ Coats remembered. ‘We could not see any enemy — but we saw streaks of smoke drifting between the trees.’ Suddenly, shadowy groups of running figures appeared, moving through the underbrush toward the Federal line. Reflexively, some Zouaves aimed their muskets, but the cry rang out: ‘Don’t fire! Those men belong to the Tenth!’ The skirmishers were crowding back on their reserve companies, whose officers were frantically trying to form a line on the left of the 5th New York. Close on the heels of the scrambling Yankees came their assailants, firing as they advanced and screaming the Rebel yell.

After driving the six companies of 10th New York skirmishers in on their reserve, who almost immediately began to give way, three units of the Texas Brigade — the 18th Georgia, the South Carolinians of Hampton’s Legion and the 5th Texas — engaged the 5th New York. Captain W.T. Hill recalled how the soldiers of his 5th Texas, ‘yelling their loudest, came out of the timber into the open ground, practically face to face with the Zouaves, who in their red, white and blue uniforms, stood in as perfect alignment as if on dress parade.’ Regardless of the 10th New York men to their front, Colonel Warren and Captain Winslow gave the command to commence firing.

A ragged volley crashed out, wreathing the line in thick, acrid smoke. The wooded terrain worked to the Southerners’ advantage, and for the most part the Yankee bullets showered the gray-clad ranks with leaves and twigs but did little damage. One soldier of the 18th Georgia, however, noted that the 5th ‘poured a most destructive fire into the ranks….At this first fire at least forty Georgians fell.’

The Rebels responded with a far more accurate volley of their own, at a range of less than 100 yards. ‘From the Zouaves we received a heavy fire, which was kept up by both sides for a few minutes,’ one Texan recalled, ‘but the steady well-directed aim of our Texas men told heavily on the enemy, and the carnage was terrible.’ Lieutenant Colonel Martin W. Gary of the Hampton Legion reported, ‘We received their volley and charged upon them, and delivered our fire at short range, killing, wounding and capturing a large number.’

Scores of Zouaves were scythed down where they stood, and the line wavered as bullets opened bloody gaps in their ranks. ‘Where the Regiment stood that day was the very vortex of Hell,’ said Andrew Coats. ‘Not only were men wounded, or killed, but they were riddled.’

Private Frederick Fowler of Company B would have agreed with Coats’ assessment. Simultaneously, four Minié bullets, a musket ball and a buckshot slammed into his body. One bullet passed through Fowler’s chest, puncturing his left lung and emerging from his back. He was shot through both thighs and both arms, two of the wounds fracturing bones, while a sixth shot traversed his left foot from toes to heel. One of Fowler’s comrades in Company B, German-born Harry Greenwood, was desperately trying to reload his musket when he collapsed with a fractured skull. George Colwell, who stood next to Greenwood, was shot through the right wrist the force of the blow flung his arm up and back, breaking it at the elbow.

Company F Private William McGuffage was ramming a round down his Springfield musket when the piece discharged, sending ramrod and bullet through his right hand. McGuffage’s first sergeant, George Mitchell, was knocked off his feet by a Minié bullet that smashed through his haversack, a slab of salt pork, a tin plate and his morning report book before lodging in the pages of his diary. Thankful to be alive, Mitchell struggled to his feet and started for the rear. He would later write, ‘I never in all my life had anything hurt me as much as that did.’

On the far left of the regimental line, 2nd Lt. William Hoffman and the troops of Company I — one of two companies in the regiment armed with Sharps rifles — found the firepower of their breechloaders of little avail in stemming the Rebel onslaught. While the Hampton Legion and 18th Georgia struck Warren’s front and right, the 5th Texas partially overlapped the left flank, enfilading the reserve companies of the 10th New York and flaying the left wing of the 5th with a vicious cross-fire. Soon after the opening volley, the Zouaves began to unravel from left to right while all along the line the newly arrived recruits began bolting for the rear. When he saw some of Company G’s file-closers vainly trying to keep the terrified novices in ranks, Corporal Colin Van Gelder Forbes shouted: ‘Let them go! Let them go!’

Recruit James Cathie stood his ground alongside Irish-born veteran James Patterson in the ranks of Company G. Grimly reloading amid the slaughter, Cathie turned to Patterson and said, ‘Look out for Siss — .’ A fatal bullet cut him down before he could finish. Another recruit, teenaged Private Eugene Geer, got off one round — his first and only shot of the war — and then crumpled with a bullet in the groin. One of the recruits in Company H was 15-year-old William H. Platt. ‘We fired three volleys at them when the rebels charged on us,’ Platt wrote. ‘We broke and run [] they shot us down by hundreds.’ As he fled the field, Platt saw no need to haul his full knapsack and extra gear. As he later put it, ‘On the retreat I chucked them all.’

Second Lieutenant Edward O. Wright of Company D fell to earth face-forward when a bullet passed through his left shoulder and lung and lodged against his spine. The officer raised himself on his hands and knees. ‘Blood oozed from my mouth, my breath became short, and I bade good bye to father, mother and all kind friends,’ Wright wrote from a hospital two weeks later, ‘for the bullets were whistling over my head like hail, the secesh were coming on yelling like cats, and it was very likely I should receive a bullet from our men who were now retreating rapidly.’

Recognizing the hopelessness of his brigade’s position, Colonel Warren determined to execute a fighting retreat before the line was entirely enveloped. But Warren’s orders to retire went unheard above the din and chaos of battle. The commander of Company A, Captain and acting Major Carlile Boyd, tried to echo the command, as did the regimental adjutant, Frederick Sovereign. Struck in the arm, Adjutant Sovereign started for the rear, but he was soon dropped by a shot through both thighs. Arteries severed, the adjutant bled to death where he fell. As Captain Boyd ran along the line, a bullet ripped two fingers from his right hand. Within seconds other shots struck Boyd in the left arm, left leg and side before he fell, to be taken prisoner. Finally Warren spurred his horse alongside the embattled color guard, grasped at the flag and, by his gestures, indicated that he wanted the color-bearers to pull back down the slope.

As acting field officers, both Cleveland Winslow and Company D Captain Wilbur Lewis were mounted and conspicuous targets. Winslow’s horse was struck seven times and sank beneath him, though Winslow himself escaped injury. Lewis was not as fortunate. Noticing that Lieutenant Wright of Company D had fallen, Lewis shouted to Sergeant John H. Reilly, ‘You are in charge of the company — do the best you can with it!’ Then, seeing the three companies to his left beginning to break, Lewis gave the command, ‘Fall back and save the colors!’ At that moment he was fatally wounded by a bullet, fell from the saddle and, with his foot stuck in the stirrup, was dragged over the field by the terrified animal. The captain’s 19-year-old brother, Edward Lewis, a corporal in Company B, was also slain on the line of battle.

For all their pride and discipline, the 5th New York could take no more. With his comrades in Company G falling all around him, Davenport saw the panicked recruits take to their heels: ‘And then what was left of the Regiment broke and ran for their lives — the Rebels after us, yelling like fiends.’ Christian Neuber of Company F admitted, ‘[it was] every man for himself, what was left of us.’ Neuber’s captain, George Hager, lay dead on the line in his bloodstained finery, ‘a bully looking corpse,’ true to his own prediction.

‘I saw my comrades dropping on all sides,’ Davenport recalled, ‘canteens struck and flying to pieces, haversacks cut off, rifles knocked to pieces it was a perfect hail of bullets.’ Hit in the left shoulder, Andrew Coats ‘fell where we stood in line of battle. Just as I fell our Regiment was driven back, and I saw Sergeant Joseph Gates reel and fall, his head and face covered with blood. The Confederates were charging over us then.’

Some men refused to retreat. Brawny, 6-foot-3-inch 1st. Sgt. William McDowell of Company G, a former New York City fireman, was bleeding from a wound in the torso but kept his place, glaring defiantly at the advancing enemy until killed by a bullet in the forehead. Sergeant Phil Wilson also stood his ground. He shot one charging foeman, then reloaded and took aim at a sword-waving officer who was shouting, ‘Kill every Yankee you can find!’ Before he could pull the trigger, Wilson crumpled, his right knee shattered.

As the line disintegrated, a knot of desperate men clustered around the regimental colors, determined that the precious banners should not fall into Rebel hands. Color Sergeant Andrew Allison, a British army veteran who carried the Stars and Stripes, was shot in the wrist. He passed the flag to another man and started for safety, but then turned back, retook the flag and was immediately shot dead. The banner was raised, shot down, and raised again. Ultimately Corporal Lucien B. Swain bore its bloody folds and splintered staff to safety.

The guardian of the blue regimental colors, 22-year-old Irish-born Sergeant Francis Spelman, was shot in the left arm and fell to the ground. Two soldiers tried to get him off the field, but he spurned their aid and stood again, flag in hand. Moments later, a bullet ripped the length of his right arm to the shoulder and another shot tore through his neck. A group of Southern soldiers made a run for the stricken sergeant, yelling at him to surrender the trophy. In desperate agony, Spelman cried out to Sergeant William Chambers, like the fallen Allison a veteran of the British army, ‘For God’s sake don’t let them take my flag!’ Chambers responded, ‘I won’t if I can help it!’ and seized the flag from the stricken bearer. At that moment another bullet slammed into Spelman’s head, nearly severing his lower jaw from his face. All but one of the regimental color guard lay dead or dying, but the banners were saved.

The fight now became a hopeless butchery. Continued resistance meant death or capture as wounded Private Richard Ackerman put it, ‘Our men had to run like dogs.’ With the Confederates blazing away at their backs, dozens of fleeing Zouaves were sent sprawling in the mad dash for Young’s Branch, or fell on the open slope that lay beyond the stream.

Forty-year-old Private Robert Munnie was in full stride when bullets struck him in the buttocks, both legs and neck. Turning to fire one more round, Corporal Theodore Hart, a prewar accountant serving in the ranks of Company A, was shot in the face, the bullet ripping through his head and exiting from his neck. Both sides of Hart’s jaw were broken, his palate destroyed and most of his teeth shattered. One tooth was propelled upward and passed out of his right eye.

As the demoralized ‘red legs’ splashed through the waters of Young’s Branch, Private Dennis Guinan tried to get off one last shot. Before he could aim his musket it was shot from his hands, the blow bowling him over into the creek where he struck his head on a submerged log and was knocked unconscious. George Dobiecki of Company E, at 5 foot 312 inches one of the shortest men in the regiment, was bleeding from a buckshot in his right calf when he caught his foot on some submerged debris and slammed into the far bank of Young’s Branch. Gasping from a rupture of his left groin, Dobiecki was half dragged by two stalwart comrades up the bullet-swept slope. New recruits William Walker and William Alexander, file mates in the ranks of Company H, were crossing Young’s Branch amid a group of retreating 10th New York men when Walker collapsed from a wound in his right leg. As he struggled to rise, another round tore through his left thigh. ‘Can I help you?’ Alexander shouted. ‘No, I can’t stand on my feet,’ Walker replied. At that moment a Rebel bullet sliced into the calf of Alexander’s left leg, and without further ado he limped up the far bank, leaving Walker ‘half covered with water.’

‘There was a bunch of zouaves ahead of us going as rapidly as they could,’ recalled 5th Texan Sidney Virgil Patrick. ‘In passing the creek their big zouave pants got full of water, and their legs looked like balloons.’ Patrick saw one New Yorker sprinting up the hill beyond Young’s Branch ‘with several shots through his pants [and] at every jump the water squirted.’ Fifth Texas Private Joe Joskins noted that Young’s Branch was red with the blood of fallen Zouaves, ‘completely damming it up with their dead and dying bodies.’ Sergeant Thomas Albergotti of the Hampton Legion recalled the stream ‘was just full of dead and dying Yankee soldiers. It was pitiful to hear the poor devils crying from pain and drowning…some mortally wounded and unable to get out terrible, terrible, to be placed in this predicament.’

There was at least one Zouave who managed to keep his wits amid the chaos. Private James Webb of Company F had escaped what he described as ‘the song of death’ and was retreating with several other men down a ravine that led toward the Warrenton Pike. Above the little squad the Confederate officers were dressing their line before renewing the onslaught. Realizing that the Rebels would likely strike at Lieutenant Hazlett’s guns, Webb turned back to alert the artillery to their danger.

‘The enemy evidently surmised his intention,’ Company F Corporal William Carothers recalled, ‘and directed their fire to him. When Webb started, we never expected to see him return.’ Henry Jones of Company E called Webb’s gesture ‘a forlorn hope of the most desperate character.’

Webb sprinted through the enemy fire, bullets tearing his uniform and one round cutting across his side. When he got to Hazlett, Webb told the artilleryman that the enemy were on his left flank, in the woods, and he would lose his guns if he did not limber up and get them to the rear immediately. The proud West Pointer took his guns off at a walk, but picked up his pace when they reached the pike. Webb, who clambered atop a limber chest, would eventually be awarded the Medal of Honor.

Only 60 Zouaves managed to rally around Colonel Warren and the bullet-torn colors, making their way to the Henry House plateau, where they formed alongside the Regulars before joining in the general retreat. Shells were exploding nearby and Colonel Warren kept saying over and over, ‘Don’t dodge, men men, don’t dodge!’ Appalled by the sight of the pitiful remnant, an officer of the 6th U.S. Infantry wrote, ‘A murmur of surprise and horror passed through the ranks of our Regulars at the fate of this brave regiment.’

Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Eugene Duryée was in reserve with his 2nd Maryland Infantry when he spotted Warren galloping across the field toward his position. Duryée, son of Abram Duryée who had organized the Zouave regiment, had formerly served as a lieutenant under Warren and now hailed his old commander. The colonel reined up his wounded horse and in a trembling voice said, ‘Jake, the old Fifth has been annihilated!’ ‘Good God!’ Duryée gasped, ‘Is that so!’ Warren merely nodded in reply. ‘I could plainly see that he was completely unnerved by this frightful loss,’ Duryée observed, ‘tears came from his eyes as he put spur to his horse, going … to General Head Quarters to report this dire disaster.’ Young Duryée was stunned. ‘I can never forget that afternoon,’ he later wrote, ‘and the sad depressing feelings it caused me.’

The walking wounded made their way from the field as best they could, some trudging eastward to Centreville, others collapsing by the roadside or crowding into improvised field hospitals. Private Robert Strachan of Company 1 tried to halt a passing ambulance to assist a wounded comrade. When the driver refused to stop, Strachan leveled his Sharps rifle at the man and forcibly commandeered the vehicle. Private William Alexander was sitting beside the road nursing his shattered ankle, and contemplating what seemed inevitable capture and imprisonment, when a mounted cavalry officer tendered Alexander the use of his horse. The good Samaritan was Lt. Col. Judson Kilpatrick-the future general-who had earlier served as a captain in the 5th New York.

Those who were too severely wounded to get off the field on their own faced a grim ordeal.’ Oh it was horrible,’ Richard Ackerman remembered, ‘lying there with dead, dying and wounded all around, and to hear their heart-rending groans:’Few Southern soldiers who witnessed the carnage above Young’s Branch would ever forget the sight. L.D. Hill of the 4th Texas, whose regiment arrived as the Zouave line gave way, recalled, ‘I never saw more dead men on the same space of ground on any battle field of the war.’ South Carolina artillery Captain William K. Bachman noted, ‘The ground was covered with the dead red-breeched fellows so that I actually had to pilot the drivers through the bodies, sometimes stopping to move them out of the way.’

Some Confederates paused to pillage the dead and wounded Yankees. ‘You won’t live anyhow,’ one Southerner told Private James Patterson,’so I guess I’ll take what you’ve got.’ Patterson begged the man to fill his canteen, but the Rebel refused. Waving $2 he took from Patterson’s pocket, the Confederate said, ‘We are going toWashington and I will not fail to drink your health when I get there!’

Another Confederate approached Private James Sheridan, who had been struck down in the retreat by a bullet that entered just above his right hip and angled up to the breastbone. When Sheridan asked the Rebel for help, the man snarled, ‘I’ve got a good mind to put you out of your misery by running my bayonet through you.’

William Walker lay half submerged in Young’s Branch for nearly 24 hours before a group of enemy soldiers finally heeded his pleas and dragged him onto the bank. Virtually shot to pieces with six wounds, Frederick Fowler sprawled in a muddy hollow, unable to move. Two barefoot Rebel soldiers came up to him, remarking, ‘We’ll lift you out in exchange for your boots.’ Fowler gladly accepted the exchange.

Not all Confederates behaved in such a callous fashion. Some passing Southerners covered grievously wounded Lieutenant Edward Wright with a blanket, made a pillow for his head and gave him a drink of water. ‘Although I did not sleep much that night, I managed to live till morning,’ Wright wrote. ‘It commenced raining, and after waiting until I was nearly wet through, I asked an old Texan to take me to a hospital, which he kindly consented to do.’ There a surgeon removed the bullet from Wright’s back, and two days later he walked through the lines to Centreville. But infection claimed his life in an Alexandria hospital on September 25.

Those who remained alive battled pain and exhaustion as their comrades weakened and died around them. Private Levi Pond had been shot in the right thigh and groin by a bullet that ‘cut the scrotum so the testicle hung out.’ As if this were not bad enough, Pond was suffering from ‘the Chickahominy diarrhea’ with 󈧔 or 17 passages a day’.

Meanwhile, wounded through the head, blinded and paralyzed but not sensing any pain, Corporal George Huntsman faded in and out of consciousness, insisting to those who lay near him that he was unscathed and wanted to go home. He was eventually taken to a hospital in Alexandria, where he died four days after the battle.

Theodore Hart was determined to survive despite the terrible wound that had shattered his jaw and put out an eye. ‘To have lain around on the bare ground four or five nights and days, two of the nights under a drenching rain, I hardly know how I managed to stick it through,’ he later wrote his mother. ‘All I had to subsist on [was] just a little meat broth and a cup of tea.’ Some men lay where they had fallen for two days, many for five, and at least one manSergeant George Sinclair of Company Efor eight days before being evacuated through the lines to Fairfax Court House.

Two days after the battle, regimental Chaplain Gordon Winslow and 10 Zouaves returned to the field under a flag o truce to do what they could for the wounded. The party was accompanied by Adjutant Sovereign’s father, who served as chaplain of the 5th New Jersey. He discovered his son’s naked body and buried the boy with his own hands.

A correspondent from the New York Tribune reported: ‘Attracted by the red bags of Duryée’s Zouaves, we proceeded to the field where they lay-nearly a hundred of them-shattered, torn and bloody, in every conceivable stage of misery. Exhaustion had been the cause of death with some whose wounds were not otherwise mortal. One man still clutched the earth, as in the last struggle for breath. Another, a tall, square-browed, Roman-faced hero, prone on his back-had his face turned to the sky in marble repose. By his side a mere boy laid, as if in death he had sought the protection of the stalwart arm which had befriended his weaker nature in life.’

A detailed examination of morning reports, muster rolls and military service and pension records indicates that in their 10 minutes at the vortex of hell, the 5th New York lost 332 men of the approximately 525 engaged. At least 119 of the casualties were killed outright or died of their wounds. The addition of two missing who were never accounted for would bring the death total to 121. It was the greatest battle fatality sustained by any Federal infantry unit in the war.

The survivors would never recover the esprit de corps that had died with their comrades at Second Bull Run. New recruits would arrive to fill the vacant ranks, but, as Sergeant Mitchell put it, ‘The regiment will never again be the regiment it has been.’

‘We are getting well worn out,’ Gouverneur Warren confided to his brother, ‘and I expect the next battle will finish us all.’ Private Davenport echoed the colonel’s sentiments. ‘I hardly expect to survive another such engagement,’ he wrote. ‘Oh! this is a dreadful war.’

This article was written by Brian C. Pohanka and originally appeared in the September 2002 issue of America’s Civil War revista.

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SECOND BATTLE

After the Union defeat at Manassas in July 1861, Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Federal forces in and around Washington and organized them into a formidable fighting machine- the Army of the Potomac. In March 1862, leaving a strong force to cover the capital, McClellan shifted his army by water to Fort Monroe on the tip of the York-James peninsular, only 100 miles southeast of Richmond. Early in April he advanced toward the Confederate capital.

Anticipating such a move, the Southerners abandoned the Manassas area and marched to meet the Federals. By the end of May, McClellan&aposs troops were within sight of Richmond. Here Gen. Joseph E. Johnston&aposs Confederate army assailed the Federals in the bloody but inconclusive Battle of Seven Pines. Johnston was wounded, and President Davis placed Gen. Robert E. Lee in command. Seizing the offensive, Lee sent his force (now called the Army of Northern Virginia) across the Chickahominy River and, in a series of savage battles, pushed McClellan back from the edge of Richmond to a position on the James River.

At the same time, the scattered Federal forces in northern Virginia were organized into the Army of Virginia under the command of Gen. John Pope, who arrived with a reputation freshly won in the war&aposs western theater. Gambling that McClellan would cause no further trouble around Richmond, Lee sent Stonewall Jackson&aposs corps northward to "suppress" Pope. Jackson clashed indecisively with part of Pope&aposs troops at Cedar Mountain on August 9. Meanwhile, learning that the Army of the Potomac was withdrawing by water to join Pope, Lee marched with Gen. James Longstreet&aposs corps to bolster Jackson. On the Rapidan, Pope successfully blocked Lee&aposs attempts to gain the tactical advantage, and then withdrew his men north of the Rappahannock River. Lee knew that if he was to defeat Pope he would have to strike before McClellan&aposs army arrived in northern Virginia. On August 25 Lee boldly started Jackson&aposs corps on a march of over 50 miles, around the Union right flank to strike at Pope&aposs rear.

Two days later, Jackson&aposs veterans seized Pope&aposs supply depot at Manassas Junction. After a day of wild feasting, Jackson burned the Federal supplies and moved to a position in the woods at Groveton near the old Manassas battlefield.

Pope, stung by the attack on his supply base, abandoned the line of the Rappahannock and headed towards Manassas to "bag" Jackson. At the same time, Lee was moving northward with Longstreet&aposs corps to reunite his army. On the afternoon of August 28, to prevent the Federal commander&aposs efforts to concentrate at Centreville and bring Pope to battle, Jackson ordered his troops to attack a Union column as it marched past on the Warrenton Turnpike. This savage fight at Brawner&aposs Farm lasted until dark.

Convinced that Jackson was isolated, Pope ordered his columns to converge on Groveton. He was sure that he could destroy Jackson before Lee and Longstreet could intervene. On the 29th Pope&aposs army found Jackson&aposs men posted along an unfinished railroad grade, north of the turnpike. All afternoon, in a series of uncoordinated attacks, Pope hurled his men against the Confederate position. In several places the northerners momentarily breached Jackson&aposs line, but each time were forced back. During the afternoon, Longstreet&aposs troops arrived on the battlefield and, unknown to Pope, deployed on Jackson&aposs right, overlapping the exposed Union left. Lee urged Longstreet to attack, but "Old Pete" demurred. The time was just not right, he said.

The morning of August 30 passed quietly. Just before noon, erroneously concluding the Confederates were retreating, Pope ordered his army forward in "pursuit". The pursuit, however, was short-lived. Pope found that Lee had gone nowhere. Amazingly, Pope ordered yet another attack against Jackson&aposs line. Fitz-John Porter&aposs corps, along with part of McDowell&aposs, struck Starke&aposs division at the unfinished railroad&aposs "Deep Cut." The southerners held firm, and Porter&aposs column was hurled back in a bloody repulse.

Seeing the Union lines in disarray, Longstreet pushed his massive columns forward and staggered the Union left. Pope&aposs army was faced with annihilation. Only a heroic stand by northern troops, first on Chinn Ridge and then once again on Henry Hill, bought time for Pope&aposs hard-pressed Union forces. Finally, under cover of darkness the defeated Union army withdrew across Bull Run towards the defenses of Washington. Lee&aposs bold and brilliant Second Manassas campaign opened the way for the south&aposs first invasion of the north, and a bid for foreign intervention.


Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam

Pope advanced confidently toward the Rappahannock River with his Army of Virginia while Lee, once McClellan had been pulled back from near Richmond, moved northward to confront Pope before he could be joined by all of McClellan’s troops. Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet’s half of the army. Pope opened the Second Battle of Bull Run (in the South, the Battle of Second Manassas) on August 29 with heavy but futile attacks on Jackson. The next day Lee arrived and crushed the Federal left with a massive flank assault by Longstreet, which, combined with Jackson’s counterattacks, drove the Northerners back in rout upon Washington. Pope lost 13,824 men out of a force of about 70,000, while Lee lost 8,353 out of about 55,000. With the Federal soldiers now lacking confidence in Pope, Lincoln relieved him and merged his forces into McClellan’s Army of the Potomac.

Lee followed up his advantage with his first invasion of the North, pushing as far as Frederick, Maryland. His hope was to bring Maryland (a slave state that had remained in the Union) into the Confederacy. He also felt that if he could continue to grind down civilian will on the Union side, the North would grant the Confederacy its independence. McClellan had to reorganize his army on the march, a task that he performed capably. But McClellan could not overcome his own worst impulses. He overestimated the size of Lee’s army by a factor of about two and a half. Worse, he failed to capitalize on an astonishing stroke of luck: the capture of Lee’s orders, discovered on the ground wrapped around three cigars. Rather than striking immediately against Lee’s scattered forces, McClellan waited 18 hours before moving. Finally, McClellan pressed forward and wrested the initiative from Lee by attacking and defeating a Confederate force at three gaps of the South Mountain between Frederick and Hagerstown on September 14. Lee fell back into a cramped defensive position along Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, where he was reinforced by Jackson, who had just captured about 12,000 Federals at Harpers Ferry. After yet another delay, McClellan struck the Confederates on September 17 in the bloodiest day of the war. Although gaining some ground, the Federals were unable to drive the Confederate army into the Potomac, but Lee was compelled to retreat back into Virginia. At Antietam, McClellan lost 12,401 of some 87,000 engaged, while Lee lost 10,316 of perhaps 45,000. When McClellan did not pursue Lee as quickly as Lincoln and Halleck thought he should, he was replaced in command by Ambrose E. Burnside, an acolyte of McClellan who had been an ineffective corps commander at Antietam.


Second Manassas

After compelling Union Gen. George B. McClellan to withdraw from the outskirts of Richmond to Harrison’s Landing on the lower James River, Gen. Robert E. Lee turned his attention to the threat posed by the newly formed Union Army of Virginia, under the command of Gen. John Pope. The Lincoln administration had chosen Pope to lead the reorganized forces in northern Virginia with the dual task of shielding Washington and operating northwest of Richmond to take pressure off McClellan’s army. Pope’s army included forces from the Shenandoah Valley and some elements of the Army of the Potomac not trapped at Harrison’s Landing. To counter Pope’s movement into central Virginia, Lee sent Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson to Gordonsville on July 13. Jackson’s force crossed the Rapidan River and clashed with the vanguard of Pope’s army at Cedar Mountain, south of Culpeper, on August 9. Jackson’s narrow tactical victory proved sufficient to instill caution in the Union high command. The initiative shifted to Lee.

Confirming that the remainder of McClellan’s Army of the Potomac was departing the Virginia Peninsula southeast of Richmond to join forces with Pope in northern Virginia, Lee ordered James Longstreet’s wing of the Army of Northern Virginia to join Jackson. Lee intended to destroy Pope before the bulk of McClellan’s reinforcements could arrive and bring overwhelming numbers to bear against the Confederates. Pope, however, foiled Lee’s plans by withdrawing behind the Rappahannock on August 19.

To draw Pope away from his defensive positions along the Rappahannock, Lee made a daring move. On August 25, he sent Jackson on a sweeping flank march around the Union right to gain its rear and sever Pope’s supply line. At sunset on August 26, Jackson’s forces completed a remarkable 55-mile march, striking the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and subsequently capturing Pope’s supply depot at Manassas Junction overnight. As expected, Pope abandoned the Rappahannock line to pursue Jackson, while Lee circled around to bring up Longstreet’s half of the Confederate army. After fending off the advance of Pope’s army near Bristoe, Jackson torched the remaining Union supplies at Manassas Junction and slipped away, taking up a position north of Groveton, near the old Bull Run battlefield. Alerted that Lee and Longstreet had reached Thoroughfare Gap and would arrive the following day, Jackson struck a lone Union division on the Warrenton Turnpike, resulting in a fierce engagement at the Brawner Farm on the evening of August 28.

Believing that Jackson was attempting to escape, Pope directed his scattered forces to converge on the Confederate position. Throughout the day on August 29, Union forces made piecemeal attacks on Jackson’s line, positioned along an unfinished railroad, while Pope awaited a flanking movement by Fitz John Porter’s command. Although the Union assaults pierced Jackson’s line on several occasions, the attackers were repulsed each time. Late in the morning, Lee arrived on the field with Longstreet’s command taking position on Jackson’s right and blocking Porter’s advance. Lee hoped to unleash Longstreet on the vulnerable Union left, but Longstreet convinced the Confederate commander that circumstances did not yet favor an attack.

August 30 dawned on a morning of indecision, as Pope confronted conflicting intelligence and weighed his options. Somehow convinced that the Confederates were retreating, the Union commander ordered a pursuit near midday, but the advance quickly ended when skirmishers encountered Jackson’s forces still ensconced behind the unfinished railroad. Pope’s plans now shifted to a major assault on Jackson’s line. Porter’s corps and John Hatch’s division attacked Jackson’s right at the “Deep Cut,” an excavated section of the railroad grade. However, with ample artillery support, the Confederate defenders repulsed the attack.

Lee and Longstreet seized the initiative and launched a massive counterattack against the Union left. Longstreet’s wing, nearly 30,000 strong, swept eastward toward Henry Hill, where the Confederates hoped to cut off Pope’s escape. Union forces mounted a tenacious defense on Chinn Ridge which bought time for Pope to shift enough troops onto Henry Hill and stave off disaster. The Union lines on Henry Hill held as the Confederate counterattack stalled before dusk. After dark, Pope pulled his beaten army off the field and across Bull Run. A final Confederate effort to flank Pope resulted in a bloody fight at Chantilly (Ox Hill) on September 1, hastening the Union retreat toward the Washington defenses. With Union forces in disarray, Lee grasped the opportunity to lead his army across the Potomac into Maryland for its first incursion into the North.


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